Anti-Capitalism From
Anti-Semitism To “Anti-Racism”

From Marx To Marks

Karl Marx and Frederich Engels, authors of The Communist Manifesto, are generally credited with the advent, or - more accurately - the discovery of, the class struggle. In reality, this concept predates The Communist Manifesto and was probably invented by the Chartist Leader Feargus O’Connor no later than 1844. (1) If not by some ancient Roman or Greek philosopher.

Although they are extremely coy about it nowadays, for obvious reasons, the early socialists, including the Jewish-born Karl Marx, were more than a little tainted with that most ignoble of pastimes, Jew-baiting. The fact that the Rothschilds and a number of other Jewish families were heavily involved in banking, and before that, usury, may have had something to do with that. The Jewish role in money-lending in Britain dates back to at least the 12th Century; the Mediaeval usurer Aaron of Lincoln (c1125-c1186) is said to have accrued a fortune second only to that of the king, (2) and it is sad but true nevertheless that the Jews in particular are judged by the worst rather than the best of their kind. (3)

With the rise of the Jewish bankers came speculation not simply that they were up to no good, but that they were involved in a conspiracy of worldwide extent against the goyim. In France in 1846, a 40 page pamphlet was published by one JUNIUS bearing the title GRAND PROCES ENTRE ROTHSCHILD IER ROI DES JUIFS ET SATAN DERNIER Rois des Imposteurs..., which loses nothing in translation, and by 1875, a certain Frederick Millingen had published no less than seven editions of Die Eroberung der Welt durch die Juden, which translates as World Conquest by the Jews. (4)

This is not to say that bankers - including Jewish bankers - were not, and are not, up to no good. The late Professor Quigley, who was better placed to know than most, recorded that bankers sought [and still seek] to control the money supply, and that “[t]o do this it was necessary to conceal, or even to mislead, both governments and people about the nature of money and its methods of operation.” (5) Another author, Gerald Krefetz, has written that “While there is no real evidence of an international conspiracy of Jewish bankers, some Jews in banking have conspired.” (6) but he adds a word of caution that “ of the oldest and most virulent anti-Semitic myths holds that Jews are driven by mercenary motives that the rest of mankind is innocent of.” (7)

Be that as it may, there is a world of difference between parasitic bankers - Jew and Gentile - and Jewish merchants. Bankers create credit ex nihilo and then lend it, or rather sell it, to the state, corporations, entrepreneurs and ordinary working people. And this lending is done against the real wealth of the community. (8) On the other hand, merchants, whatever their race, provide a genuine service, supplying the public with the goods they demand.

During the latter part of the 19th Century, many Jews arrived in Britain fleeing from pogroms in Tsarist Russia. One such Jew went under the name of Michael Marks.

Born in Grodno, Russian Poland in June 1859, the young Michael Marks turned up in England in 1882. Marks was not only penniless and illiterate but spoke no English. The story of how he went on to found the Marks & Spencer supermarket chain - with his Gentile partner Tom Spencer - has become legendary and needs no retelling here, but very briefly he was given a five pound loan by a kindly businessman, (9) humped a pack on his back across the West Riding, then set up a stall in Leeds Market, and later, sold a share of his business to Tom Spencer. Marks died at a young age, soon after Spencer, and the former’s family, after winning a boardroom battle with Spencer’s executor, went on to become one of the most respected retailers in the world.

The partnership of Marks & Spencer was registered as a private limited company in 1903, by which time they owned a handsome thirty-six market bazaars and shops, including three in London, so by the time the First World War arrived, although the company’s founder had been long gone, Marks & Spencer was a well established, reputable Jewish-owned firm. Not according to Captain Beamish though, for, along with his “Jew-wise” fellow travellers, Beamish saw the sinister hand of a Jewish conspiracy at work in the British economy. So who was Captain Beamish?

Beamish, The Britons And The “Protocols”

Henry Hamilton Beamish (1874-1948) was the founder of the Britons Publishing Society; this Irish-born third son of a vice-admiral was also the first person to organise the dissemination of anti-Semitic propaganda in Britain, (the raison d’être of the Britons).

Beamish is said to have had a bizarre peripatetic career - travelling as far afield as Alaska, Ceylon and Japan - and to have discovered the Jewish world conspiracy during the Boer War. (10) The Britons was founded July 18, 1919 but ante-dated to July 18, 1918 for propaganda purposes. It had a mere fourteen members. (11) As well as publishing many editions of the notorious Protocols Of Zion (of which more anon), the Britons published a many titled anti-Semitic journal between February 1920 and June 1925. (12)

Other luminaries in the Britons Publishing Society were the financial reformer, inventor and entrepreneur Arthur Kitson; the distinguished camel doctor and (later) notorious fascist and anti-Semite Arnold Leese; (13) and a distinguished homeopath, Dr J.H. Clarke. In 1920, Beamish personally authored THE JEWS’ WHO’S WHO, which was subtitled ISRAELITE FINANCE. ITS SINISTER INFLUENCE. The POPULAR EDITION, which appeared the following year, ran to 255 pages.

Had Michael Marks lived to see this he would have been horrified, because instead of being portrayed as industrious pioneers of the retail trade, the new breed of Jewish entrepreneurs were pictured as part and parcel of a megalithic conspiracy by which the Jews controlled the economy, pulling wires in and out of government, making the politicians and everyone else of importance dance to their tune. The government of David Lloyd George was referred to as the Jew-alition government; the Bolshevik Revolution was said to be the work of the Calmyc Jew Lenin; (14) Trotsky was said to have twenty-five young Christian girls in his harem; (15) and for good measure, the Bolsheviks were said to be funded by the International Jews of Wall Street. (16)

The early twenties also saw the appearance of the Protocols Of Zion, the minutes of an alleged secret meeting between Jewish world bankers and revolutionaries at which they plotted the conquest of the world. Although the Protocols first appeared in Tsarist Russia shortly after the turn of the century, (17) it didn’t rear its ugly head in the West until 1920. The German translation Die Geheimnisse der Weisen von Zion went through six editions in that same year. (18) The first German publisher of the Protocols was Müller von Hansen (or von Hausen) alias Ludwig Müller. Another German champion of the Protocols was the leading anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch (1852-1933) whose hatemongering predated the birth of Hitler. As early as 1887 Fritsch had published Antisemiten-Katechismus. (19)

In 1920, the Protocols also reached England; published under the title The Jewish Peril, initially it bore the impression of the reputable firm of Eyre & Spottiswoode, before being quickly taken up by the Britons, which went on to publish over eighty editions over the next four decades! (20) The high Tory newspaper the Morning Post ran a series of articles on and around the theme of the Protocols and the Jewish Peril between July 10 and July 29, 1920. The articles, which were published under the generic title of The Cause Of World Unrest, were later collected together and published as a book on both sides of the Atlantic. When the Protocols were eventually exposed as a plagiarism of a 19th Century satire on Napoleon III, The Dialogues In Hell, (21) the New Statesman referred to the Morning Post’s readers as suet-brained. (22)

In the United States, the Protocols and other Jewish conspiracy nonsense found an unlikely champion in the great industrial genius Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company, who used his vast wealth to spread their doctrine to the far corners of the Earth.

Ford claimed, and undoubtedly believed sincerely, that Jewish capitalists were a destructive force on the world political scene. In a 1938 interview with the New York Times, he said that probably no more twenty-five men who handled the nation’s finances were “the world’s real warmakers...” (23) Neglecting of course to mention that he had himself profited from war!

Ford had a famous admirer in Adolf Hitler, himself a champion of the Protocols, but Hitler’s belief in the Jewish conspiracy went far beyond the mystical twaddle of the Elders of Zion, and had a more practical side to it. The Nazi Party programme promised the exclusion of all non-Germans from the future racial state, and stated candidly that it would order “Dismissal of all Jews and non-Germans from all responsible positions in public life” and the “Prevention of immigration of Eastern Jews and other parasitic foreigners. Undesirable foreigners and Jews to be deported.” (24)

From The Middle Ages To Weimar

The former leader of the Belgian Rexist Movement, General Leon Degrelle, wrote in his biography of Adolf Hitler (25) that “For more than a thousand years Europeans had sought to keep the Jews from dominating their various countries. Hitler would never tolerate the control of Germany by non-German aliens, and if the Jews did not like a Germany for the Germans they simply could leave”. (26) Undoubtedly the General believed this, but the idea that Jews had, for a thousand years, sought to dominate the economies of Europe and that Europeans had fought desperately to prevent them from so doing, is a complete fantasy. When Michael Marks set up his stall in Leeds market under a placard bearing the now immortal legend “Don’t Ask The Price, It’s a Penny”, the very last thing that was on his mind was dominating the economies of Europe.

And were the shoppers who patronised him - and on whom he depended for his livelihood - fighting a battle to prevent him and his kind from dominating the economy? In Germany as in Britain there were prosperous Jews. By 1908, Prussia alone had 747 millionaires (with more than 5 million Marks), and at least 162 of them were of Jewish extraction. (27) A stock claim of anti-Semites (and lunatics) is that when Jews are rich it is because they have become rich at the expense of the common people, that they are usurers, middlemen, non-producers. The preferred word is often parasites. Leaving aside the fact that middlemen bring together willing buyers and willing sellers and are entitled to make a profit, the charge of usury (or today banking) is one that can be levelled at Gentiles as much as Jews.

Although there is no escaping the fact that Jews were indeed heavily involved in usury, there were very good socio-economic reasons for this. The Church forbade usury, (28) so, incidentally, does the Talmud. (29) Alas, the Church also forbade adultery, and, as with a bit of the other, “Fear of eternal damnation and public disapproval were...very slack curbs on the activities of Christian lenders...” (30)

One author has written that “In Elizabethan England, usury burgeoned; and it was clearly not a matter that could be attributed to Jews, since virtually all of them had been banished from England in 1290.” (31) Certainly during the Middle Ages money lenders were not exclusively Jews, even though they were often designated judaeus. In Italy for example, there were very many Christian judaei, half a dozen in Cremona alone. (32) And even when the borrowers were Jewish, they could not expect any favours from their usurious cousins, thus: the Jewish banchieri (pawnbrokers) of 16th Century Italy often charged interest to Jews. (33) For the 13th and most of the 14th Century, both Lombards and Jews were heavily involved in usury and pawnbroking; eventually the Jews supplanted them completely. (34) This is what General Degrelle would have interpreted as Jews attempting to dominate a sector of the economy. In reality, it was simply the inevitable result of unfettered capitalism: those who satisfy their customers’ demands prosper, while those who do not, go to the wall.

The reason the Lombards went to the wall may have had something to do with their sharp practices, for in the 15th Century, Jewish banchieri were admitted to Turin “probably out of hatred of Christian lenders, and because they charged a lower interest...” (35) Although sometimes Christian and Jewish financiers worked together. (36) Incidentally, this last state of affairs is far less desirable than Jews and Christians competing, because it leads, inevitably, to monopoly, and is a fairly inevitable outcome if the state does not keep an eye on the market. As Professor Quigley tells us: “Business hates competition. Such competition might appear in various forms...[making] planning difficult, and [jeopardising] profits. Businessmen prefer to get together with competitors so that they can cooperate to exploit consumers to the benefit of profits instead of competing with each other to the injury of profits.” (37) That should be obvious, and in fact the great free market economist Adam Smith expressed the same sentiment more succinctly with his goose quill pen some two hundred years before Professor Quigley sat down behind his typewriter: “People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.” (38)

Although Jews were well represented in banking in Weimar Germany, they were also involved in other, and more respectable, fields of commerce. In June 1933, a Nazi document “to be treated with due reserve but seemingly in the main reliable in many of its facts” revealed that of 147 members of the stock, produce, and metal exchanges, 116, almost 80 per cent, were of Jewish origin, while the management committee of the stock exchange was made up of twenty-five Jews and a mere eleven Gentiles. Twelve Jews and four non-Jews made up the management committee of the produce exchange and ten Jews and two non-Jews the management committee of the metal exchange. (39)

This apparent Jewish dominance may not be quite as complete as it appears, depending on how one defines the word Jew. It is common knowledge that the Nazis’ obsession with the Jewish Question led them to classify many non-Jews as Jews. The Jewish population of Britain at the present time is about 300,000. (40) In reality the majority of these “Jews” are more goy than yid, that is they are simply persons of Jewish origin; many of them have no strong religious affiliations or any religious affiliations at all. If one were to count only regular synagogue worshippers, the actual number would be far smaller; if one were to include only those who live under Halakhah, (41) it would be smaller still. Yet if one were to include anyone and everyone in the British Isles who had some Jewish ancestry, the number would very likely run into millions. (42) For example, the well-known journalist Nigella Lawson - daughter of the former Chancellor of the Exchequer - is of Jewish origin, yet she is as far removed from Jewry as any Jew could be. (43)

All the same, the Jewish contribution to the German economy was considerable. One author has noted that “Overall, there appears to be no justification for the widely held view that, in the time of the Weimar Republic, there were few people of Jewish origin involved prominently in industrial activity. On the contrary, at least until the onset of the Great Depression, their position in this field was one of relative prominence.” (44) Unfortunately, the most prominent German-Jewish industrialist of the Weimar era never lived to see the onset of the Great Depression. Walter Rathenau, who was also Minister for Foreign Affairs, was murdered by fanatics in June 1922. There is good evidence that Rathenau’s assassins were influenced by the notorious Protocols Of Zion. (45)

Jews And Capitalism Under Hitler

When the Nazis took power the Jewish population of Germany was around 600,000. (46) In February 1933, a supplement to the Jewish Chronicle reported in an extensive analysis that German Jews accounted for the following: 2,208 lawyers, 3,670 doctors, 713 dentists, 374 authors, 31 actors, 113 singers and 41 editors. If correct, these figure are not so much remarkable as astounding: more than one German Jew in three hundred was a lawyer, and more than one in two hundred was a doctor. W.E. Mosse has written that “as proved by their economic success, members of the German-Jewish economic élite made a major contribution to the satisfaction of wants and, with it, to German economic development in general.” (47) Now all the above is fairly incontrovertible, as any reasonable person would agree. Unfortunately though, Germany was soon to be ruled by people who were less reasonable than fanatical, and avowedly anti-Jewish. On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany, and the Nazi era had begun.

It is well known that the Nazis mounted an anti-Jewish boycott on their ascension to power; it is less well known that this boycott lasted a single day and that Organised Jewry throughout the world, especially in the United States and Great Britain, organised a much further reaching boycott which was designed to bring Germany to its knees. The Jewish Chronicle for April 7, 1933 reported in a lengthy article The Martyrdom of German Jewry BRUTAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC EXTINCTION...that “The [Nazi] boycott had a trial run of one day - and that day Shabbat - and was then ingloriously called off. Realising that he has brought the world about his ears, Hitler has sounded the retreat on the anti-Semitic front; but he has not yet surrendered, and a protracted war of attrition is facing German Jewry.” (48)

Reports in the Jewish press at the time indicate that the Jewish boycott of Germany - which was supported by many of Germany’s competitors! - had real teeth, and, in the words of Rabbi Goldstein, did a lot of harm. (49)

That being said, there can be no doubt that the Nazis planned to expel all Jews from the economy and eventually from the country, by one means or another. The reader should recall the pledge made in their official programme “Undesirable foreigners and Jews to be deported.”

Although not all Nazis were raving anti-Semites, and some weren’t even anti-Semites at all, (50) it is a sweeping but safe generalisation to say that the prevailing Nazi dogma was that Jews manipulated the economy for their own ends by some sinister - and as yet undisclosed - conspiratorial method(s), and that their presence in positions of power was detrimental to the German people. In short, they were parasites, vampires who sucked the life blood out of the economy. As a result of their blind adherence to this absurd dogma, the Nazis passed a series of increasingly repressive anti-Jewish laws.

While these legal measures were rightly condemned the world over, and while it is equally true that their purpose was to drive Jews out of positions of power, and out of the economy, and while there is no doubt that many of them were interpreted by constitutional experts as violations of the rule of law, it must be conceded that they were introduced and enforced within a framework of - what to us today would seem - bizarre justice. That is there was an adherence to the rule of law, or at least an attempt to adhere to it, which was sincere rather than cosmetic. (51) To take just one example, by Autumn 1935 Jews were banned from exhibiting the swastika in their homes and offices, yet at one point three Jewish-owned shipping companies in Hamburg were said to have hoisted the swastika flag on their vessels, proudly it seems. (52) Early the following year it was reported that the Zionist banner had been recognised by the state and was entitled to police protection under the Nuremberg laws and the national flag regulations. (53)

This and other things considered, the expulsion of Jews from the economy was for real: the Jewish Chronicle of July 14, 1933 reported purges of Jewish professional workers and a new wave of anti-Jewish violence. (54) The same issue reported that the boycott was very much a two-way affair, for a correspondent told the paper that the professions had already begun to feel the pinch. “A dentist tells me that he has lost nearly all his Jewish patients. ‘They now go to Jewish dentists,’ he said, ‘and I can hardly blame them.’” (55)

The April 6, 1934 issue reported that “In spite of Chancellor Hitler’s definite instructions that Jews are not to be boycotted in business, Julius Streicher’s stronghold of Franconia has seen...a torrent of propaganda [and] murder” and that “...the Union of German Clothing Manufacturers has refused to accept any business offers from non-Aryan agents or factory owners, unless they were wounded in the War.” One can only describe this as schizophrenic, which is what the Nazi attitude towards the Jews was. However, the report on page 18 of the paper two weeks later was evidence more of pragmatism than of mental illness, for it was announced that at the start of the year, all the German-Jewish owners of the big steelworks who had been ejected by Hitler were quietly reinstated. Most of the Jews had also resumed their places in the banks. What can this have been?

The short answer seems to have been that, after the Nazis had finished railing at the Jewish control of the economy and purged these schemers and manipulators, they realised they had no one left to run the economy! Four years later the Jewish Chronicle reported that “The Nazis sometimes find it convenient to overlook the fact that some of the best brains in the Reich are contained in non-Aryan craniums. Several instances of this have lately come to light. Talented Jewish doctors and engineers, especially those under forty-five years of age, have been refused permission to leave Austria and have been given positions.”

The paper cited the case of one Jewish doctor and one engineer, and “Two skilled workmen - a locksmith and a weaver [who] are known to have been given positions in Germany. Both were offered jobs when they appeared at the Government Unemployment Insurance Office recently to get their unemployment cards stamped. One of them is reported to have exclaimed: ‘But I am a Jew; how can I accept the job?’ The official answered testily: ‘Nobody asked you whether you were a Jew or not.’” (56)

These anecdotes are corroborated to a degree by other sources. The American Hebrew newspaper reported in its November 2, 1934 issue that “...Jewish emigres of considerable means have been invited by the government to return, having received assurances by the government that they will in no way be molested if they return and take part in the economic life of the nation.” (57)

Private Jewish banks continued to operate in Nazi Germany until 1938. M.M. Warburg and Co. was Aryanised in 1938 but continued to operate under its old name. (58) At least one Jewish banking family was made honorary Aryans, (59) which is surely as gross an act of hypocrisy and double think as anyone could dream up: “You people are usurious parasites, you must be purged from the economy, however, you’re better at what you do than anyone else, so when it suits us, you can serve our ends.” So much for the evils of usury.

Incidentally, for all the talk about building a new thousand year Reich, there is good evidence that Hitler was really a closet Conservative and simply wanted to continue “business as usual” notwithstanding his own peculiar ideas about race and the Jewish Question. (60) In December 1934, the American Hebrew newspaper reported that Gottfried Feder had been dismissed. This was said to have been part of the continuation of the Roehm purge. Feder had continued to demand the nationalisation of the banks and the financing of public works through non-interest bearing treasury notes. He was said also to have come into conflict with the industrialists who had backed Hitler. (61) Feder, it will be recalled, was the author of the party’s twenty-five point programme, (62) one of whose demands read in part “Relief of the State, and hence of the nation, from its indebtedness to the great financial houses which lend on interest...Provision of money for all great public objects...not by means ofloans, but by granting non-interest bearing State bonds or without using ready money...Creation of a national bank of business development (currency reform) for granting non-interest bearing loans.” (63)

If the fact that the M.M. Warburg bank continued to trade under its old name is surprising, the reason it continued to do so is bizarre. In September 1938, less than two months before the infamous Kristallnacht, the Jewish Chronicle reported that all the big stores in Berlin which were formerly Jewish-owned bore signs showing that they were Aryanised but retained their Jewish names to trade off the goodwill of their previous owners! For the record, Jewish influence in the field of finance had been waning long before the rise of Hitler. In 1933, the Jewish Chronicle reported that “...the foreign exchange business, which forty years ago was practically monopolised in this country by Jews, is now almost entirely out of their hands.” (64) And the current writer was once told by a Rabbi that the Rothschild family are now Gentiles, because they had long since married out. In his will, the founder of the Rothschild dynasty, Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1743-1812) ruled that female Rothschilds who married out would be excluded from the business (along with their spouses). Key posts were to be held by immediate members of the family. (65) This fine sentiment appears not to have been upheld.

The Nazis’ hypocrisy and double standards on the Jewish Question continued well into the Second World War. The following is a distillation of such reports from the contemporary Jewish Chronicle.

March 26, 1937, page 22: Nazi officials found to be patronising Jewish doctors. It had previously been announced that all Aryans so doing would be publicly named. This changed their minds. The German Ministry of Propaganda decided otherwise.

May 14, 1937, page 16: Rumanian lawyers were said to have adopted an anti-Jewish bar; similar measures enacted in Poland against lawyers and doctors.

An article NAZIS WANT SKILLED JEWISH LABOUR: Thousands Employed in Berlin Factories, which appeared in the February 10, 1939 issue reported that the German Labour Front had asked the Berlin Jewish Communal Board to supply it with 1,200 skilled Jewish workers, mainly mechanics, engineers, electricians and carpenters, and that they have been promised the same remuneration as that fixed for Aryans.

In the same issue it was reported that Aryan women in Vienna were calling for the reinstatement of Jewish doctors during an influenza epidemic.

The March 10, 1939 issue ran an article: NAZIS CONSCRIPT JEWISH LABOUR Official Order to Employers TO BE GIVEN WORK “AS SOON AS POSSIBLE” on the conscription of unemployed Jews. But didn’t they control the economy?

The May 31, 1940 issue reported NAZIS NEED JEWISH DOCTORS Unable to Cope With Wounded. The authorities were said to be recruiting Jewish doctors in Vienna in spite of the ban. Perhaps they had at last heeded the pleas of the women of Vienna the previous year? The June 28 issue reported that “Jewish doctors incarcerated for years in concentration camps and prisons have been released and hurried to the various military hospitals to alleviate the suffering of the wounded Nazis.” They had even been invited from Poland! The July 19 issue reported NAZI SHORTAGE OF DOCTORS Jews Made to Tend Wounded. 1,250 Jewish doctors and 940 dentists were said to have been conscripted. Obviously race is of little importance to someone with a a broken leg or toothache.

Jewish doctors remained in heavy demand throughout the war. The April 25, 1941 issue reported 200,000 GERMAN WOUNDED Jewish Doctors Called In; (this referred to the campaign in Greece). The August 22, 1941 issue reported JEWISH DOCTORS RELEASED FROM CONCENTRATION CAMPS. Due to the “heroic resistance” of the Russian Army, they were needed to treat German casualties. Several hundred were said to have been released. Those who declined Herr Hitler’s kind offer were rewarded with the death penalty! And, in the February 6, 1942 issue, the German Ministry of Health was said to have lifted its ban on Jewish doctors and dentists, including those recently released from concentration camps. A scarlet fever epidemic was said to be spreading.

On March 28, 1941, the Jewish Chronicle reported the Aryanisation of 20,000 Jewish businesses in Holland, but although Jews were not deemed suitable to own businesses, they were, evidently, considered suitable to die for Germany, for the very next page of the same issue reported GERMANY CALLS UP HALF-JEWS. “Half-Jews” and men up to age 55 were to be called up for military service. Including a number of German-Jewish scientists released from internment camps for consultation purposes.

The previous month a report in the paper claimed that a pro-Nazi publication, GARDISTA, had taken to task the policy of Aryanising businesses in Slovakia. Confiscating businesses from Jews and handing them over to inexperienced goyim was said to be sending them to the wall and wrecking the economy. (66)

Later that same year the paper reported that the Nazis were taking steps to win over world opinion. In Slovakia, Jews were being rounded up for forced labour, while Jewish doctors, who hadn’t been good enough for Aryans in the period 1933-9, were now being asked (or ordered) to tend the war wounded at the Rothschild Jewish Hospital in Vienna.

As well as forced labour, Jews were being invited to work in Germany on a voluntary basis. “Influential Jews” were told they could return to Germany and Aryanise their names. This was to restore the backing of “powerful world-financial interests” lost by earlier persecutions. German Consulates in Switzerland were said to be inviting Jews to return to Germany because of an acute labour shortage. Work was promised for every Jew who returned. (67) It is doubtful if many availed themselves of this most generous offer. Especially as by this time many of the concentration camps were full of Jews.

Also, Jews were reported to have been recruited by the Nazis as food controllers in Rumania, and, elsewhere, to have been forced to act as black marketeers. (68) In the former case, they were said to have been recruited because they were bilingual, but the real reason appears to have been to scapegoat them. (69) (Ie, so that the Jews would be blamed for the inevitable food shortages rather than the Nazis). This concludes our survey of Jews and capitalism in Nazi Germany.

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